Over time, regardless of the sorbent used, sticks of dynamite will "weep" or "sweat" nitroglycerin, which can then pool in the bottom of the box or storage area. We have an excellent understanding of how physics works today. In 1863 he used a patent detonator or blasting cap for erupting nitro-glycerine. Gunpowder was invented in China in the ninth century A.D., and had been used in European warfare since the 1200s. First dynamite factory begins production The Giant Powder Company becomes the first company to produce dynamite. In 1869, Nobel met Paul Barbe in France, a graduate of Ècole Polytechnique, who immediately showed great enthusiasm for dynamite. It was Zollner who first cut spiral grooves in the barrels of guns. His new invention was patented in 1867 and originally sold as "Nobel's Blasting Powder". [1], In 1857, Nobel filed the first of several hundred patents, mostly concerning air pressure, gas and fluid gauges, but remained fascinated with nitroglycerin's potential as an explosive. The detonator used a strong shock rather than heat combustion to ignite the explosives. It was his construction work that inspired Nobel to research new methods of blasting rock. In the summer of 1863, Nobel performed his first successful detonation of pure nitroglycerin, using a blasting cap made of a copper percussion cap and mercury fulminate. This made it safer to set off dyamite. Asked by mikehunt11. On 7 May 1867, he earned the patent in England. [1], Nobel obtained patents for his inventions in England on 7 May 1867 and in Sweden on 19 October 1867. It contains 75% RDX, 15% TNT, 5% SAE 10 motor oil, and 5% cornstarch, but is much safer to store and handle for long periods than Nobel's dynamite. [9], There were two large explosions at the Somerset West plant during the 1960s. One advantage that dynamite had over nitroglycerin was that it could be cylinder-shaped for insertion into the drilling holes used for mining. He built bridges and buildings in Stockholm and founded Sweden's first rubber factory. In the United States, in 1885, the chemist Russell S. Penniman invented "ammonium dynamite", a form of explosive that used ammonium nitrate as a substitute for the more costly nitroglycerin. First dynamite factory begins production The Giant Powder Company becomes the first company to produce dynamite. Question #91442. The explosives factory was later operated by AECI (African Explosives and Chemical Industries). Dynamite has to be detonated using a blasting cap. However, he became a pacifist in his later years. Nobel was granted 355 different patents for his different inventions of which dynamite was the most famous. Other explosives are often referred to or confused with dynamite: TNT is most commonly assumed to be the same as (or confused for) dynamite, largely due to the ubiquity of both explosives during the 20th century and the civilian practice of preparing dynamite charges in 8″ × 1″ "sticks" wrapped in red waxed paper and shaped to fit the cylindrical boreholes drilled in the rock face. In 1864, Alfred Nobel filed patents for both the blasting cap and his method of synthesizing nitroglycerin, using sulfuric acid, nitric acid and glycerin. Nobel was not ignorant of these uses. Nitroglycerin was used to blast rock in mines, to make tunnels, or to flatten ground for construction. It also change the way we took part in war for a brief history. Alfred Nobel thought that the invention of this weapon would help end wars but it turned out to be otherwise and is still thought of as one of the deadliest products ever invented. Thereafter, DuPont produced dynamite under its own name until 1911–12 when its explosives monopoly was broken up by the U.S. It replaced gunpowder and Nitroglycerin and was mostly used for mining (gold rush) and during war. Seismology - Pioneered by Robert Mallet in 1851 by using dynamite explosions to measure the speed of elastic waves in surface rock. By the use of dynamite, we can now clear rocky and uneven surfaces (such as boulder paths) and use the clearings to build on. On 3 September 1864, while experimenting with nitroglycerin, Emil and several others were killed in an explosion at the factory at Immanuel Nobel's estate at Heleneborg. In 1863, Nobel invented the Nobel patent detonator or blasting cap for detonating nitroglycerin. However, Nobel continued to develop war technology even after dynamite's invention, including rockets, "smokeless powder" and canons, according to Nobelprize.org. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged. Nobel stabilized nitroglycerin by mixing it with diatomaceous earth, the fossilized shells of diatoms. At age 17, Alfred was sent abroad for two years; in the United States he met Swedish engineer John Ericsson and in France studied under famed chemist Théophile-Jules Pelouze and his pupil Ascanio Sobrero who had first synthesized nitroglycerin in 1847. When he was just nine, his family shifted to Russia. a) Sir Alexander Graham Bell b) Benjamin Franklin c) Thomas Alva Edison d) Alfred B. Nobel Alfred Nobel invented dynamite in 1867. The subject of today’s essay, Alfred Bernhard Nobel, inventor of Dynamite and Founder of the Nobel Peace Prize. By the use of dynamite, we can now clear rocky and uneven surfaces (such as boulder paths) and use the clearings to build on. To be able to detonate the dynamite rods, Nobel also improved his detonator (blasting cap) so that it could be ignited by lighting a fuse. It also change the way we took part in war for a brief history. It consisted of a small tin full of mercury fulminate, trailing a long fuse. A factory was eventually built at Paulilles on the Mediterranean, in Pyrénée… Alfred Nobel invented dynamite because he was so interested in social issues, he wanted to help people to use mining facilities safer. Nobel obtained patents for his invention: in England on 7 May 1867 and in Sweden on 19 October 1867. Like many military strategists since, Nobel believed the invention of … In 1864, Albert Nobel founded Nitroglycerin AB in Stockholm, Sweden. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Biography of Alfred Nobel, Inventor of Dynamite, October Calendar of Famous Inventions and Birthdays, Biography of John Stanard, Inventor of a Better Refrigerator, September Calendar of Famous Inventions and Birthdays, January Calendar of Famous Inventions and Birthdays, August Calendar of Famous Inventions and Birthdays, November Calendar of Famous Inventions and Birthdays. In its natural liquid state, nitroglycerin is very volatile. One of these explosives was "nitroglycerin". Therefore, while the risk of an explosion without the use of a blasting cap is minimal for fresh dynamite, old dynamite is dangerous. Alfred Noble, the inventor of Dynamite, worked hard to develop the invention that revolutionized the thought of explosives. During the 17th century, people used nitroglycerin to blast rocks. After the Crimean War, the family returned to Sweden. [3], Nobel originally sold dynamite as "Nobel's Blasting Powder" but decided to change the name to dynamite, from the Ancient Greek word dýnamis (δύναμις), meaning "power".[4][5]. Alfred Nobel's father, Immanuel Nobel, was an industrialist, engineer, and inventor. It was later changed to "dynamite", from the Ancient Greek word dýnamis, meaning "power". Currently voted the best answer. Dynamite was revolutionary when it was invented in 1867, as other explosives of the time were, not surprisingly, quite dangerous. [6] A stick of dynamite thus produced contains roughly 1 MJ (megajoule) of energy. Dynamite is an explosive that was invented in 1866 by Swedish physicist Alfred Nobel and patented by him a year later. Alfreds travels made him flue… It is rated by either "weight strength" (the amount of ammonium nitrate in the medium) or "cartridge strength" (the potential explosive strength generated by an amount of explosive of a certain density and grain size used in comparison to the explosive strength generated by an equivalent density and grain size of a standard explosive). In 1875 Nobel invented gelignite, more stable and powerful than dynamite, and in 1887 patented ballistite, a predecessor of cordite. These four companies were founded before Nobel had invented dynamite. In 1866 Alfred Nobel from Stockholm brought the latest explosive or dynamite. When he died, he left most of that fortune to establish the prizes that bear his … Nitroglycerin was first invented by Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero (1812–1888) in 1846. It was much safer to use as it needed a“Blasting cap” also inven… On October 21, 1833, Alfred Bernhard Nobel was born in Stockholm, Sweden. Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel and was the first safely manageable explosive stronger than black powder. Born in Stockholm, Sweden, Nobel moved with his family as a youngster to St. Petersburg where he was tutored privately by leading university professors. Nobel was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1884, the same institution that would later select laureates for two of the Nobel prizes, and he received an honorary doctorate from Uppsala University in 1893. In 1867, Nobel’s discovery that nitroglycerin mixed with an absorbent substance was much safer to handle led to the invention of dynamite. Dynamite is usually sold in the form of cardboard cylinders about 20 cm (8 in) long and about 3.2 cm (1 1⁄4 in) in diameter, with a weight of about 190 grams (1⁄2 troy pound). [2] After its introduction, dynamite rapidly gained wide-scale use as a safe alternative to black powder and nitroglycerin. TNT has never been popular or widespread in civilian earthmoving, as it is considerably more expensive and less powerful by weight than dynamite,[12] as well as being slower to mix and pack into cylindrical boreholes; for its part, dynamite has never been popular in warfare because it degenerates quickly under severe conditions and can be detonated by either fire or a wayward bullet. In 1870, he established the Société général pour la fabrication de la dynamite in Paris, France. The German armed forces adopted it as a filling for artillery shells in 1902, some 40 years after the invention of dynamite, which is a first generation phlegmatized explosive primarily intended for civilian earthmoving. Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, was also a great industrialist. Houghton Mifflin Company 19 March 2013, "dynamite." Various countries around the world have enacted explosives laws and require licenses to manufacture, distribute, store, use, and possess explosives or ingredients. The Nobel Company built the first factory to manufacture nitroglycerin and dynamite. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht, Northern Germany and patented in 1867. Alfred Nobel invented Dynamite. Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel, a chemist from Sweden, in 1867. Some workers died, but the loss of life was limited by the modular design of the factory and its earth works, and the planting of trees that directed the blasts upward. Born in Stockholm, Sweden, Nobel moved with his family as a youngster to St. Petersburg where he was tutored privately by leading university professors. Nobel understood this and in 1866 discovered that mixing nitroglycerin with silica would turn the liquid into a malleable paste called dynamite. The scientist, this fact is rejected. This incorrect connection between TNT and dynamite was enhanced by Bugs Bunny cartoons where animators started labeling any kind of cartoon bomb (ranging from sticks of dynamite to kegs of black powder) as "TNT" because the acronym was shorter and more memorable and did not require literacy to recognize "TNT" meant "bomb" (similar to the use of XXX markings on whiskey bottles and barrels in cartoons). Dynamite was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht, Germany, and patented in 1867. Ammonium nitrate has only 85% of the chemical energy of nitroglycerin. To be able to detonate the dynamite rods, Nobel also invented a detonator or blasting cap that was ignited by lighting a fuse. 1867 here dynamite was invented. It was a very popular until TNT was invented (no, dynamite and TNT are not the same). ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. The first electric blasting cap that could detonate dynamite invented H. Julius Smith invented a Blasting cap that had a spark gap ignitor and a mercury fulminate. Inventor of Dynamite and Creator of the Nobel Prize. By chance, he discovered that nitroglycerin was absorbed to dryness by kieselguhr, a porous siliceous earth, and the resulting mixture was much safer to use and easier to handle than nitroglycerin alone. Alfred Nobel, in full Alfred Bernhard Nobel, (born October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—died December 10, 1896, San Remo, Italy), Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist who invented dynamite and other more powerful explosives and who also founded the Nobel Prizes. There isn’t anything coming in the foreseeable future to supersede nuclear weapons. The companies, which duplicated his dynamite, were closed. The factory then went on to produce ammonium nitrate emulsion-based explosives that are safer to manufacture and handle.[10]. For that reason, explosive manuals recommend the repeated turning over of boxes of dynamite in storage. [14] Military dynamite substitutes much more stable chemicals for nitroglycerin.[15]. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite as a new explosive, much stronger than gunpowder, but safer than nitroglycerin. Who invented the Dynamite. The factory at Somerset West was in operation in 1903 and by 1907 it was already producing 340,000 cases, 23 kilograms (50 lb) each, annually. For example, 40% dynamite is composed of 40% nitroglycerin and 60% "dope" (the absorbent storage medium mixed with the stabilizer and any additives). The Nobel Prizes that he was awarded for this invention will not go down in history. To solve this problem, Nobel sought to combine it with another substance that would make it safe for transport and handling but yet would not reduce its effectiveness as an explosive. But besides being the namesake behind one of the most prestigious awards given annually for academic, cultural and scientific achievements, Nobel is also well-known for making it possible for people to blow things up. Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel and was the first safely manageable explosive stronger than black powder. The only way we know to release more energy than a fusion bomb is using antimatter. We have an excellent understanding of how physics works today. Dynamite was not invented until 1866. The renowned chemist, businessman, and inventor gave the world its most prestigious award … Who invented Dynamite? He proudly acclaimed of himself as the world citizen as he stayed in many countries. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht, Northern Germany and patented in 1867. It was in France that Nobel first encountered nitroglycerin, which Pelouze cautioned against using as a commercial explosive because of its great sensitivity to shock. Finally, he tried diatomaceous earth, fossilized algae, that he brought from the Elbe River near his factory in Hamburg, which successfully stabilized the nitroglycerin into a portable explosive. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht, and patented in 1867. Protective coating surrounding the explosive material. Nitroglycerin and Dynamite. After the Crimean War, the family returned to Sweden. There the De Beers company established a factory in 1902 at Somerset West. After some bad business deals in Sweden, in 1838 Immanuel moved his family to Saint Petersburg, where Alfred and his brothers were educated privately under Swedish and Russian tutors. Two new companies were formed upon the breakup, the Hercules Powder Company and the Atlas Powder Company, which took up the manufacture of dynamite (in different formulations) thereafter. In its natural liquid state, nitroglycerin is very volatile. Alfred Nobel was born in Sweden, and he learned the basics of engineering from his father. In 1867, Nobel received U.S. patent number 78,317 for his invention of dynamite. However, its use as a tool of war was also obvious. Nitroglycerin was first invented by Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero (1812–1888) in 1846. The rifle was the first firearm adopted into the American military during the Revolutionary War, thought to have been invented in the 15th century by Gaspard Zöllner or Zeller of Nuremberg, Germany. In 1865, he built the Alfred Nobel & Co. The first electric blasting cap that could detonate dynamite invented H. Julius Smith invented a Blasting cap that had a spark gap ignitor and a mercury fulminate. Alfred Nobel is not only famous as the Swedish inventor of Dynamite but also as a scientist, engineer, chemist and industrialist. Hence, the Nobel prize is awarded yearly to people whose work helps humanity. An industrialist, engineer, and inventor, the Swedish Nobel built bridges and buildings in Stockholm. [11] Alfred invents “dynamite” Alfred found, through his experiments, that mixing nitroglycerine with a fine sand called kieselguhr would turn the liquid into paste which could be shaped into rods. Nobel went on to invent a number of other explosives. Nobel’s second important invention was that of dynamite in 1867. Alfred was born on 21st October in the year 1833 in Stockholm of Sweden. Dynamite is usually rated by "weight strength" (the amount of nitroglycerin it contains), usually from 20% to 60%. 1870 – France. Alfred Nobel: Biography and Legacy. There isn’t anything coming in the foreseeable future to supersede nuclear weapons. In the 1840s, whilst working in a laboratory in Paris, he invented the substance known as nitroglycerin, an oily and highly explosive liquid. Giant was eventually acquired by DuPont, which produced dynamite under the Giant name until Giant was dissolved by DuPont in 1905. Dynamite was patented in the US and the UK and was used extensively in mining and the building of transport networks internationally. There were many others who tried to copy his invention, but he was able to shut them down. [8] With a hammer of 2 kg, mercury fulminate detonates with a drop distance of 1 to 2 cm, nitroglycerin with 4 to 5 cm, dynamite with 15 to 30 cm, and ammoniacal explosives with 40 to 50 cm. This eventually led to the general perception that TNT and dynamite were one and the same. Asciano Sobrero is a name you’re unlikely to have heard of.. And yet his contribution to society was, if you’ll pardon the pun, explosive. Dynamite was revolutionary when it was invented in 1867, as other explosives of the time were, not surprisingly, quite dangerous. Factory in Krümmel near Hamburg, Germany. In 1867, Alfred Nobel got U. S. patent for dynamite. Nobel invented dynamite in 1867, a substance easier and safer to handle than the more unstable nitroglycerin. It rapidly gained wide-scale use as a more powerful alternative to black powder. HarperCollins Publishers 19 March 2013. He was purposefully looking for ways to create stable connections of nitroglycerin, using as the absorbent (absorbent material), charcoal, brick dust, clay and … In 1875, Nobel invented blasting gelatin, which was more stable and powerful than dynamite and patented it in 1876. Today the area houses the GKSS, a scientific facility. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 03:33. There were many others who tried to copy his invention, but he was able to shut them down. Nobel stabilized nitroglycerin by mixing it with diatomaceous earth, the fossilized shells of diatoms. Dynamite was patented in the US and the UK and was used extensively in mining and the building of transport networks internationally. Dynamite was invented in 1866 by a Swedish inventor, chemist and industrialist Alfred Nobel. Nobel obtained patents for his invention: in England on 7 May 1867 and in Sweden on 19 October 1867. Dynamite, blasting explosive, patented in 1867 by the Swedish physicist Alfred Nobel. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite because he was so interested in social issues, he wanted to help people to use mining facilities safer. January 13, 2017 January 23, 2018 by Neo / 1. Alfred Nobel invented Dynamite in 1867, during the Second US Industrial Revolution / Victorian period of invention (1850 - 1914). Its "cartridge strength" would be its weight in pounds times its strength in relation to an equal amount of ANFO (the civilian baseline standard) or TNT (the military baseline standard). on When was Dynamite invented? For example, 65% ammonium dynamite with a 20% cartridge strength would mean the stick was equal to an equivalent weight strength of 20% ANFO. It rapidly gained wide-scale use as a more powerful alternative to black powder. Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel in 1867. While Ballistite was developed as a substitute for black gunpowder, a variation is used today as a solid fuel rocket propellant. [1], Despite the invention of the blasting cap, the volatility of nitroglycerin rendered it useless as a commercial explosive. Soldiers used detonating dynamite for a wide range of attack. Definition of Dynamite: Dynamite is defined as an explosive substance containing nitrate sensitized with nitroglycerin that was soaked and absorbed on sawdust, clay, wood pulp or any other type of absorbent material. A few American businessmen, however got around the patent by using absorbents other than diatomaceous earth, such as resin. The renowned chemist, businessman, and inventor gave the world its most prestigious award … In actuality, aside from both being high explosives, TNT and dynamite have very little in common: TNT is a second generation castable explosive adopted by the military. To be able to detonate the dynamite rods, Nobel also invented a detonator or blasting cap that was ignited by lighting a fuse. Dynamite was invented by Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in the late 19th century as a safe way of using nitroglycerin as a demolition agent. In 1863, he invented a remote detonator, which evolved into the blasting cap. In 1865 Alfred Nobel founded a nitroglycerin factory near Geesthacht. Alfred's father ran a company that made explosives. The new material could be placed in cardboard tubes and Nobel designed a 'blasting cap' and fuse to allow the explosion to be controlled. Binaural (double earpiece) stethoscope - Invented by Athur Leared in 1851. The invention was made in 1866. For example, high-explosive 65% Extra Dynamite has a weight strength of 65% ammonium nitrate and 35% "dope" (the absorbent medium mixed with the stabilizers and additives). By 1859 the family was struggling as the war had finished. Nobel is most familiar to us today as the founder of the Nobel Prize. Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel in 1867. Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers. Nobel prided himself on the many countries he lived in during his lifetime and considered himself a world citizen. This article is about the high explosive. Dynamite was invented by Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in the late 19th century as a safe way of using nitroglycerin as a demolition agent. These rods could then be inserted into drilling holes. Facts about Dynamite present the interesting information about an explosive created from stabilizers, sorbents and nitroglycerin. The only way we know to release more energy than a fusion bomb is using antimatter. [13] Accordingly, more than 90% of the TNT produced in America was always for the military market, with most filling shells, hand grenades and aerial bombs and the remainder being packaged in brown "bricks" (not red cylinders) for use as demolition charges by combat engineers. 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